Challenges in Online Education in Iran
Education, along with the right to life, the right to choose, the right to health, the right to food and housing, is one of the fundamental human rights. This phenomenon, in addition to its fundamental importance, has a secondary impact on the social and economic benefits of individuals, and its benefits are recognized as the basis of theories of human development. In Iran, according to Article 30 of the Constitution, the government is obliged to “provide all citizens with free education up to secondary school and must expand free higher education to the extent required by the country for attaining self-sufficiency”. According to the result of this article, approximately 80% of public education costs are paid by the government and the ratio of the education budget to the total budget has been about 10 percent in recent years.
Analysis of the state of education in Iran shows that the country as a whole has grown significantly in reducing educational poverty, especially after the 1979 Islamic Revolution, and has been able to significantly increase the level of educational coverage. Although Iran has succeeded in reducing the illiteracy rate, the process has faced serious developments and challenges during the last decades, the outbreak of COVID-19 at the end of 2019 is one of those challenges.