After the US withdrawal from JCPOA, and announcements about new sanctions, German-Iran trade volume declined drastically.

Iran’s economy has witnessed multi-tier and unstable exchange rate systems which echo different ideological priorities, necessities of profitability in semi-market conditions and rentseeking contributions.

A number of incidents which took place following Iran’s Islamic Revolution rapidly escalated the relations between Iran and the Western countries, particularly the US.

Upon his return from the United States in September, President Erdoğan publicized his October 4th visit, along with a group of Turkish ministers and advisors, to Iran, which has been considered a significant event.

For the past years, Iran has made minimal but essential economic progress in Ghana, but much has not been written on its economic inroads in Ghana.